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What is the Saffir-Simpson Scale of hurricane categories?

2012-08-28: Update 2: Isaac has attained weak Category 1 status with winds between 74-80mph. Its expected to decrease in strength upon reaching landfall. At 5:30 pm EDT, the eye is approx 87 mi from New Orleans and west of the city. Apparent track puts the eye passing between Houma and New Orleans, on track for Baton Rouge.

2012-08-28: Update: EWR expects Isaac to be barely a category 1 hurricane, if that, at landfall, and drop less rain than expected.

EWR monitoring: TS Isaac from New Orleans KLIX

Visible image. Image switches to infared view at night. Click on image to go to loop.

Aviation Colour Enhancement – As colour moves toward red and gray – indicates colder cloud tops – ie deeper convection, stronger storm. Click for loop

For additional satellite imagery, go to the Tropical Floaters page and select the specific storm (Isaac).

Model Wind Projection – Weatherbell Models (link in sidebar)

HWRF Wind speed projection – ISAAC – see chart for validity period. ©Weatherbell Models

Model track projections – Weatherbell Models

Multiple track projection – ISAAC – Multiple model guidance. ©Weatherbell Models.

BULLETIN
TROPICAL STORM ISAAC ADVISORY NUMBER 37
NWS NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL AL092012
400 AM CDT THU AUG 30 2012

…ISAAC CONTINUES TO WEAKEN SLOWLY OVER LAND BUT STILL PRODUCING
HEAVY RAINS AND SEVERE WEATHER…WATER LEVELS REMAIN HIGH ALONG THE
NORTHERN GULF COAST…

SUMMARY OF 400 AM CDT…0900 UTC…INFORMATION
———————————————-
LOCATION…30.9N 91.6W
ABOUT 55 MI…85 KM SE OF ALEXANDRIA LOUISIANA
ABOUT 110 MI…175 KM NW OF NEW ORLEANS LOUISIANA
MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WINDS…45 MPH…75 KM/H
PRESENT MOVEMENT…NW OR 325 DEGREES AT 8 MPH…13 KM/H
MINIMUM CENTRAL PRESSURE…983 MB…29.03 INCHES

WATCHES AND WARNINGS
——————–
CHANGES WITH THIS ADVISORY…

THE TROPICAL STORM WARNING WEST OF INTRACOASTAL CITY LOUISIANA TO
CAMERON IS DISCONTINUED.

SUMMARY OF WATCHES AND WARNINGS IN EFFECT…

A TROPICAL STORM WARNING IS IN EFFECT FOR…
* INTRACOASTAL CITY LOUISIANA TO THE MISSISSIPPI-ALABAMA BORDER…
INCLUDING LAKE PONTCHARTRAIN AND LAKE MAUREPAS

FOR STORM INFORMATION SPECIFIC TO YOUR AREA…PLEASE MONITOR
PRODUCTS ISSUED BY YOUR LOCAL NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE FORECAST
OFFICE.

DISCUSSION AND 48-HOUR OUTLOOK
——————————
AT 400 AM CDT…0900 UTC…THE CENTER OF TROPICAL STORM ISAAC WAS
LOCATED NEAR LATITUDE 30.9 NORTH…LONGITUDE 91.6 WEST. ISAAC IS
MOVING TOWARD THE NORTHWEST NEAR 8 MPH…13 KM/H. A TURN TOWARD THE
NORTH-NORTHWEST IS EXPECTED LATER TODAY…FOLLOWED BY A TURN TOWARD
THE NORTH ON FRIDAY. ON THE FORECAST TRACK…THE CENTER OF ISAAC
WILL CONTINUE TO MOVE OVER LOUISIANA TODAY…OVER ARKANSAS ON
FRIDAY…AND OVER SOUTHERN MISSOURI FRIDAY NIGHT.

MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WINDS HAVE DECREASED TO NEAR 45 MPH…75 KM/H…
WITH HIGHER GUSTS. THE STRONGEST WINDS ARE PRIMARILY OCCURRING
OVER WATER OR NEAR THE COAST. STEADY WEAKENING IS EXPECTED DURING
THE NEXT 48 HOURS AS ISAAC CONTINUES TO MOVE OVER LAND. ISAAC IS
FORECAST TO BECOME A TROPICAL DEPRESSION BY TONIGHT.

TROPICAL STORM FORCE WINDS EXTEND OUTWARD UP TO 175 MILES…280 KM
FROM THE CENTER.

THE ESTIMATED MINIMUM CENTRAL PRESSURE BASED ON NEARBY SURFACE
OBSERVATIONS IS 983 MB…29.03 INCHES.

HAZARDS AFFECTING LAND
———————-
EVEN THOUGH ISAAC IS NO LONGER A HURRICANE…LIFE-THREATENING
HAZARDS FROM STORM SURGE…INLAND FLOODING…AND TORNADOES ARE STILL
OCCURRING.

STORM SURGE…THE COMBINATION OF A STORM SURGE AND THE TIDE WILL
CAUSE NORMALLY DRY AREAS NEAR THE COAST TO BE FLOODED BY RISING
WATERS. THE WATER COULD REACH THE FOLLOWING DEPTHS ABOVE GROUND IF
THE PEAK SURGE OCCURS AT THE TIME OF HIGH TIDE…

* MISSISSIPPI AND SOUTHEASTERN LOUISIANA…5 TO 10 FT
* ALABAMA…2 TO 4 FT
* SOUTH-CENTRAL LOUISIANA…1 TO 3 FT
* FLORIDA PANHANDLE…1 TO 2 FT

THE DEEPEST WATER WILL OCCUR ALONG THE IMMEDIATE COAST IN AREAS OF
ONSHORE WINDS. SURGE-RELATED FLOODING DEPENDS ON THE RELATIVE
TIMING OF THE SURGE AND THE TIDAL CYCLE…AND CAN VARY GREATLY OVER
SHORT DISTANCES. FOR INFORMATION SPECIFIC TO YOUR AREA…PLEASE
SEE PRODUCTS ISSUED BY YOUR LOCAL WEATHER SERVICE OFFICE. NEAR THE
COAST…THE SURGE WILL BE ACCOMPANIED BY LARGE AND DANGEROUS WAVES.

BASED ON AN OBSERVATION FROM A NATIONAL OCEAN SERVICE TIDE GAUGE AT
NEW CANAL STATION LOUISIANA…A STORM SURGE OF 6.3 FEET IS STILL
OCCURRING ON THE SOUTHERN SHORE OF LAKE PONTCHARTRAIN.

WIND…TROPICAL STORM CONDITIONS WILL CONTINUE ACROSS THE WARNING
AREA THROUGH THIS MORNING.

RAINFALL…ISAAC IS EXPECTED TO PRODUCE TOTAL RAINFALL AMOUNTS OF 7
TO 14 INCHES…WITH POSSIBLE ISOLATED MAXIMUM AMOUNTS OF 25
INCHES…OVER MUCH OF LOUISIANA…MISSISSIPPI…SOUTHWEST ALABAMA
AND ARKANSAS THROUGH FRIDAY. THESE RAINS COULD RESULT IN
SIGNIFICANT LOWLAND FLOODING.

TORNADOES…ISOLATED TORNADOES ARE POSSIBLE ALONG THE CENTRAL GULF
COAST REGION AND PARTS OF THE LOWER MISSISSIPPI RIVER VALLEY
THROUGH TODAY.

SURF…DANGEROUS SURF AND RIP CURRENT CONDITIONS WILL CONTINUE TO
AFFECT THE WEST COAST OF FLORIDA AND THE NORTHERN GULF COAST FOR THE
NEXT DAY OR SO.

TROPICAL STORM ISAAC DISCUSSION NUMBER 37
NWS NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL AL092012
400 AM CDT THU AUG 30 2012

ISAAC IS SLOWLY WEAKENING AS MORE OF ITS LARGE CIRCULATION MOVES
OVER LAND. BASED ON THE LATEST SURFACE WIND OBSERVATIONS NEAR THE
NORTHERN GULF COAST…THE MAXIMUM WINDS HAVE DIMINISHED TO NEAR 40
KT. THESE WINDS ARE OCCURRING PRIMARILY OVER WATER OR ALONG THE
COASTLINE. CONTINUED GRADUAL WEAKENING IS EXPECTED…AND ISAAC IS
LIKELY TO BECOME A TROPICAL DEPRESSION BY THIS EVENING. THE
OFFICIAL INTENSITY FORECAST IS SIMILAR TO THE PREVIOUS ONE…AND IS
MORE OR LESS IN AGREEMENT WITH THE STATISTICAL-DYNAMICAL GUIDANCE.

CENTER FIXES USING SURFACE SYNOPTIC DATA AND NATIONAL WEATHER
SERVICE DOPPLER RADAR IMAGERY INDICATE THAT ISAAC IS MOVING
NORTHWESTWARD AT A SLIGHTLY FASTER PACE…325/7. THE TRACK
FORECAST AND PROGNOSTIC REASONING REMAIN ESSENTIALLY UNCHANGED.
OVER THE NEXT SEVERAL DAYS…THE PRIMARY STEERING MECHANISM SHOULD
BE THE FLOW BETWEEN THE MID-LATITUDE WESTERLIES AND A RIDGE OVER
THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES. AS A RESULT THE CYCLONE IS
EXPECTED TO TURN NORTHWARD…NORTHEASTWARD…AND EASTWARD DURING
THE FORECAST PERIOD. THE OFFICIAL TRACK FORECAST IS VERY CLOSE TO
THE PREVIOUS ONE…AND ALSO CLOSE TO THE LATEST DYNAMICAL MODEL
CONSENSUS.

HEAVY RAINFALL AND A SIGNIFICANT FLOOD THREAT ARE EXPECTED TO SPREAD
INLAND ACROSS PORTIONS OF THE CENTRAL UNITED STATES DURING THE NEXT
SEVERAL DAYS. WATER LEVELS ALONG THE NORTHERN GULF COAST WILL
REMAIN ELEVATED THROUGH AT LEAST THIS MORNING. TORNADOES REMAIN A
THREAT AS WELL FROM THIS SYSTEM TODAY.

FORECAST POSITIONS AND MAX WINDS

INIT 30/0900Z 30.9N 91.6W 40 KT 45 MPH
12H 30/1800Z 31.9N 92.3W 35 KT 40 MPH…INLAND
24H 31/0600Z 33.8N 93.2W 30 KT 35 MPH…INLAND
36H 31/1800Z 36.0N 93.5W 25 KT 30 MPH…INLAND
48H 01/0600Z 38.0N 93.0W 20 KT 25 MPH…POST-TROP/REMNT LOW
72H 02/0600Z 39.5N 90.0W 15 KT 15 MPH…POST-TROP/REMNT LOW
96H 03/0600Z 40.0N 86.5W 15 KT 15 MPH…POST-TROP/REMNT LOW
120H 04/0600Z 40.5N 82.0W 15 KT 15 MPH…POST-TROP/REMNT LOW

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The tribute below is a compilation of video material from HBO and IMAX, interwoven with music and the real audio track (Youtuber vokram1). The video following is the real thing.

Robert Krulwich of NPR, speculated in a blog post in 2010 about why the lunar astronauts didn’t wander off further. To his surprise, Krulwich got his answer:

Dear Mr. Krulwich

I was delighted to read your December 7 column on the the Apollo 11 lunar surface traverses, The NASA maps do accurately portray the locations of the pathways used to complete the myriad of tasks we were assigned. And, although I have not checked, I believe the comparison with the size of athletic fields is reasonably accurate.

You asked: “Who knew?”

The answer to that question is: Just about anyone who had any interest in learning the answer. The plan for the lunar surface work was widely distributed and we even did a full dress rehearsal for the press at the NASA Johnson Space Center.

It is true that we were cautious in our planning. There were many uncertainties about how well our Lunar module systems and our Pressure suit and backpack would match the engineering predictions in the hostile lunar environment. We were operating in a near perfect vacuum with the temperature well above 200 degrees Fahrenheit with the local gravity only one sixth that of Earth. That combination cannot be duplicated here on Earth, but we tried as best we could to test our equipment for those conditions. For example, because normal air conditioning is inadequate for lunar conditions, we were required to use cold water to cool the interior of our suits. We did not have any data to tell us how long the small water tank in our backpacks would suffice. NASA officials limited our surface working time to 2 and 3/4 hours on that first surface exploration to assure that we would not expire of hyperthermia. After returning to and repressurizing the Lunar Module, we were able to drain and measure the remaining water in the backpacks to confirm the predicted.

There was great uncertainty about how well we would be able to walk in our cumbersome pressurized suit. My colleague demonstrated a variety of techniques in view of the television camera that I had installed in a position predetermined to be in the optimum spot for coverage of all of our activities. Preflight planners wanted us to stay in TV range so that they could learn from our results how they could best plan for future missions. I candidly admit that I knowingly and deliberately left the planned working area out of TV coverage to examine and photograph the interior crater walls for possible bedrock exposure or other useful information. I felt the potential gain was worth the risk.

It is true that we would have liked to stay on the surface longer and traveled further away from the Lunar Module and the television camera. But we had a number of experiments to install, samples to document and collect, and photographs to take. The time available was fully allocated and we were working diligently to complete our assigned tasks. The Lunar Laser Ranging Retroreflector we installed is still in use today in a variety of scientific experiments.

Later Apollo flights were able to do more and move further in order to cover larger areas, particularly when the Lunar Rover vehicle became available in 1971. But in KRULWICH WONDERS, you make an important point, which I emphasized to the House Science and Technology Committee. During my testimony in May I said, “Some question why Americans should return to the Moon. “After all,” they say “we have already been there.” I find that mystifying. It would be as if 16th century monarchs proclaimed that “we need not go to the New World, we have already been there.” Or as if President Thomas Jefferson announced in 1803 that Americans “need not go west of the Mississippi, the Lewis and Clark Expedition has already been there.” Americans have visited and examined 6 locations on Luna, varying in size from a suburban lot to a small township. That leaves more than 14 million square miles yet to explore.

I have tried to give a small insight into your question “Who knew?”

I hope it is helpful.

Sincerely,

Neil Armstrong

Commander

Apollo 11

To steal a quote from Jackie Gleason in the Honeymooners, ages before, “to the moon, Alice”, and so he did.

What is the Saffir-Simpson Scale of hurricane categories?

Visible image. Image switches to infared view at night. Click on image to go to loop.

Aviation Colour Enhancement – click for loop

For additional satellite imagery, go to the Tropical Floaters page and select the specific storm (Joyce).

BULLETIN
POST-TROPICAL CYCLONE JOYCE ADVISORY NUMBER 9
NWS NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL AL102012
1100 AM AST FRI AUG 24 2012

…JOYCE DEGENERATES INTO A REMNANT LOW…

SUMMARY OF 1100 AM AST…1500 UTC…INFORMATION
———————————————–
LOCATION…17.8N 46.2W
ABOUT 1030 MI…1655 KM E OF THE LEEWARD ISLANDS
MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WINDS…35 MPH…55 KM/H
PRESENT MOVEMENT…WNW OR 300 DEGREES AT 16 MPH…26 KM/H
MINIMUM CENTRAL PRESSURE…1009 MB…29.80 INCHES

WATCHES AND WARNINGS
——————–
THERE ARE NO COASTAL WATCHES OR WARNINGS IN EFFECT.

DISCUSSION AND 48-HOUR OUTLOOK
——————————
SATELLITE IMAGES INDICATE THAT JOYCE HAS DEGENERATED INTO A BROAD
AREA OF LOW PRESSURE. AT 1100 AM AST…1500 UTC…THE CENTER OF THE
REMNANT LOW WAS LOCATED NEAR LATITUDE 17.8 NORTH…LONGITUDE 46.2
WEST. THE LOW IS MOVING TOWARD THE WEST-NORTHWEST NEAR 15 MPH…24
KM/H. SOME INCREASE IN FORWARD SPEED IS EXPECTED DURING THE NEXT
COUPLE OF DAYS…WITH A TURN TOWARD THE NORTHWEST FORECAST ON
SUNDAY.

MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WINDS ARE NEAR 35 MPH…55 KM/H…WITH HIGHER
GUSTS. LITTLE CHANGE IN STRENGTH IS FORECAST DURING THE NEXT 48
HOURS…BUT THE REMNANT LOW COULD DEGENERATE INTO A TROUGH AT ANY
TIME.

ESTIMATED MINIMUM CENTRAL PRESSURE IS 1009 MB…29.80 INCHES.

HAZARDS AFFECTING LAND
———————-
NONE

NEXT ADVISORY
————-
THIS IS THE LAST PUBLIC ADVISORY ISSUED BY THE NATIONAL HURRICANE
CENTER ON THIS SYSTEM UNLESS REGENERATION OCCURS. ADDITIONAL
INFORMATION ON THIS SYSTEM CAN BE FOUND IN HIGH SEAS FORECASTS
ISSUED BY THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE…UNDER AWIPS HEADER
NFDHSFAT1 AND WMO HEADER FZNT01 KWBC.

POST-TROPICAL CYCLONE JOYCE DISCUSSION NUMBER 9
NWS NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL AL102012
1100 AM AST FRI AUG 24 2012

VISIBLE SATELLITE IMAGERY INDICATES THAT THE CENTER OF CIRCULATION
HAS BECOME ILL DEFINED…AND THE CIRCULATION ITSELF MAY NOT EVEN BE
CLOSED ANYMORE. ALTHOUGH THE CYCLONE IS PRODUCING SOME CONVECTION
IN THE NORTHERN SEMICIRCLE…THE SHOWERS AND THUNDERSTORMS ARE NOT
WELL ORGANIZED. JOYCE NO LONGER SATISFIES THE CRITERIA FOR BEING A
TROPICAL CYCLONE…AND IT IS THEREFORE BEING DESIGNATED AS A REMNANT
LOW. THIS WILL BE THE LAST ADVISORY UNLESS REGENERATION OCCURS.

BASED ON ANALYSES FROM UW-CIMSS…JOYCE IS BEING AFFECTED BY ABOUT
20 KT OF SOUTH-SOUTHEASTERLY SHEAR…AND IT IS EMBEDDED IN A DRY
MID-LEVEL ENVIRONMENT. THESE PARAMETERS ARE NOT EXPECTED TO
CHANGE APPRECIABLY DURING THE NEXT COUPLE OF DAYS…AND THE
PROSPECTS OF REGENERATION AND STRENGTHENING APPEAR LOW AT THIS TIME.
THE NHC OFFICIAL FORECAST HOLDS THE CYCLONE AS A REMNANT LOW
THROUGH THE 5-DAY FORECAST…BUT IT IS ENTIRELY POSSIBLE THAT THE
LOW COULD DISSIPATE AT ANY TIME.

THE INITIAL MOTION ESTIMATE IS 300/13. THE LOW IS EXPECTED TO
MAINTAIN A WEST-NORTHWESTWARD HEADING WITH SOME ACCELERATION AS IT
MOVES ALONG THE SOUTHWESTERN PERIPHERY OF A LOW/MID-LEVEL
SUBTROPICAL RIDGE. THE REMNANTS SHOULD REACH THE WESTERN EXTENT OF
THE RIDGE IN 3-4 DAYS…AND ARE FORECAST TO RE-CURVE TOWARD THE
NORTHEAST BY DAY 5. THE TRACK GUIDANCE IS STILL IN RELATIVELY GOOD
AGREEMENT…AND THE NEW NHC FORECAST IS JUST AN UPDATE OF THE
PREVIOUS ONE.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON THIS SYSTEM CAN BE FOUND IN HIGH SEAS
FORECASTS ISSUED BY THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE…UNDER AWIPS
HEADER NFDHSFAT1 AND WMO HEADER FZNT01 KWBC.

FORECAST POSITIONS AND MAX WINDS

INIT 24/1500Z 17.8N 46.2W 30 KT 35 MPH…POST-TROP/REMNT LOW
12H 25/0000Z 18.7N 48.6W 30 KT 35 MPH…POST-TROP/REMNT LOW
24H 25/1200Z 20.3N 52.1W 25 KT 30 MPH…POST-TROP/REMNT LOW
36H 26/0000Z 22.1N 55.5W 25 KT 30 MPH…POST-TROP/REMNT LOW
48H 26/1200Z 24.5N 58.7W 25 KT 30 MPH…POST-TROP/REMNT LOW
72H 27/1200Z 29.0N 63.5W 25 KT 30 MPH…POST-TROP/REMNT LOW
96H 28/1200Z 33.5N 62.0W 25 KT 30 MPH…POST-TROP/REMNT LOW
120H 29/1200Z 37.5N 53.0W 25 KT 30 MPH…POST-TROP/REMNT LOW

What is the Saffir-Simpson Scale of hurricane categories?

Visible image. Image switches to infared view at night. Click on image to go to loop.

Aviation Colour Enhancement – click for loop

For additional satellite imagery, go to the Tropical Floaters page and select the specific storm (Gordon).

BULLETIN
HURRICANE GORDON INTERMEDIATE ADVISORY NUMBER 15A
NWS NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL AL082012
800 AM AST SUN AUG 19 2012

…GORDON MOVING QUICKLY EASTWARD TOWARD THE EASTERN AZORES…

SUMMARY OF 800 AM AST…1200 UTC…INFORMATION
———————————————-
LOCATION…35.1N 30.7W
ABOUT 340 MI…550 KM WSW OF SAO MIGUEL ISLAND AZORES
MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WINDS…100 MPH…155 KM/H
PRESENT MOVEMENT…E OR 80 DEGREES AT 23 MPH…37 KM/H
MINIMUM CENTRAL PRESSURE…973 MB…28.73 INCHES

WATCHES AND WARNINGS
——————–
CHANGES WITH THIS ADVISORY…

NONE.

SUMMARY OF WATCHES AND WARNINGS IN EFFECT…

A HURRICANE WARNING IS IN EFFECT FOR…
* THE EASTERN AZORES

A HURRICANE WARNING MEANS THAT HURRICANE CONDITIONS ARE EXPECTED
SOMEWHERE WITHIN THE WARNING AREA…IN THIS CASE WITHIN 24 HOURS.
PREPARATIONS TO PROTECT LIFE AND PROPERTY SHOULD BE RUSHED TO
COMPLETION.

FOR STORM INFORMATION SPECIFIC TO YOUR AREA…PLEASE MONITOR
PRODUCTS ISSUED BY YOUR NATIONAL METEOROLOGICAL SERVICE.

DISCUSSION AND 48-HOUR OUTLOOK
——————————
AT 800 AM AST…1200 UTC…THE CENTER OF HURRICANE GORDON WAS
LOCATED NEAR LATITUDE 35.1 NORTH…LONGITUDE 30.7 WEST. GORDON IS
MOVING TOWARD THE EAST NEAR 23 MPH…37 KM/H. A TURN TOWARD THE
EAST-NORTHEAST IS EXPECTED LATER TODAY. ON THE FORECAST TRACK…THE
CENTER OF GORDON WILL BE NEAR OR OVER THE ISLANDS OF THE EASTERN
AZORES EARLY MONDAY.

MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WINDS HAVE DECREASED TO NEAR 100 MPH…155 KM/H…
WITH HIGHER GUSTS. GORDON IS A CATEGORY TWO HURRICANE ON THE
SAFFIR-SIMPSON HURRICANE WIND SCALE. ADDITIONAL WEAKENING IS
FORECAST…BUT GORDON IS STILL EXPECTED TO BE A HURRICANE WHEN IT
PASSES NEAR OR OVER THE EASTERN AZORES.

HURRICANE FORCE WINDS EXTEND OUTWARD UP TO 35 MILES…55 KM…FROM
THE CENTER…AND TROPICAL STORM FORCE WINDS EXTEND OUTWARD UP TO 125
MILES…205 KM.

THE ESTIMATED MINIMUM CENTRAL PRESSURE IS 973 MB…28.73 INCHES.

HAZARDS AFFECTING LAND
———————-
WIND…TROPICAL STORM CONDITIONS ARE EXPECTED TO FIRST REACH THE
EASTERN AZORES LATE TODAY…WITH HURRICANE CONDITIONS EXPECTED
TONIGHT AND MONDAY.

RAINFALL…GORDON IS EXPECTED TO PRODUCE TOTAL RAINFALL AMOUNTS OF 3
TO 6 INCHES OVER THE CENTRAL AND EASTERN AZORES.

SURF…SWELLS GENERATED BY GORDON ARE EXPECTED TO REACH THE CENTRAL
AND EASTERN AZORES TODAY…CAUSING DANGEROUS SURF AND RIP CURRENT
CONDITIONS. PLEASE CONSULT PRODUCTS FROM YOUR LOCAL WEATHER OFFICE
FOR MORE INFORMATION.

HURRICANE GORDON DISCUSSION NUMBER 15
NWS NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL AL082012
500 AM AST SUN AUG 19 2012

GORDON REMAINS A WELL ORGANIZED HURRICANE BUT IT APPEARS TO HAVE
WEAKENED A LITTLE. THE LATEST DVORAK CLASSIFICATIONS FROM
TAFB…SAB…AND UW-CIMSS HAVE FALLEN SLIGHTLY FROM THE PREVIOUS
VALUES LIKELY DUE TO A SLIGHT COOLING OF THE EYE AND A THINNING OF
THE CONVECTIVE CLOUDS ON THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE CIRCULATION. THE
INITIAL WIND SPEED IS ESTIMATED TO BE 90 KT…IN AGREEMENT WITH THE
SATELLITE INTENSITY ESTIMATES. THE HURRICANE HAS NOW MOVED OVER
SUB-26C WATERS AND CURRENTLY LIES IN AN ENVIRONMENT OF MODERATE
WESTERLY SHEAR. SINCE THE SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURES DECREASE
FURTHER ON THE EXPECTED TRACK AND BECAUSE GORDON IS ANTICIPATED TO
MOVE INTO EVEN STRONGER SHEAR…STEADY WEAKENING IS FORECAST.
POST-TROPICAL TRANSITION IS ANTICIPATED TO OCCUR IN 2 TO 3
DAYS…WHEN THE VERTICAL CIRCULATION IS EXPECTED TO BECOME
SIGNIFICANTLY DECOUPLED. THE OFFICIAL FORECAST SHOWS THE
POST-TROPICAL CYCLONE DISSIPATING BY DAY 4…FOLLOWING THE GLOBAL
MODEL GUIDANCE.

GORDON CONTINUES TO MOVE SWIFTLY EASTWARD AT ABOUT 20 KT. A SHORT
WAVE TROUGH SEEN IN WATER VAPOR IMAGES NEAR 40N/40W IS SWINGING
SOUTHEASTWARD TOWARD THE HURRICANE. THIS FEATURE SHOULD CAUSE THE
CYCLONE TO TURN EAST-NORTHEASTWARD…TAKING GORDON VERY NEAR SANTA
MARIA AND SAO MIGUEL ISLANDS IN THE EASTERN AZORES IN 18 TO 24
HOURS. AFTER PASSING THE AZORES…THE WEAKENING CYCLONE IS
FORECAST TO SLOW DOWN SUBSTANTIALLY AND TURN BACK TO THE EAST
BEFORE IT DISSIPATES. THE TRACK MODEL GUIDANCE REMAINS TIGHTLY
CLUSTERED…AND THE OFFICIAL FORECAST LIES VERY NEAR THE
MULTI-MODEL CONSENSUS.

FORECAST POSITIONS AND MAX WINDS

INIT 19/0900Z 34.9N 31.6W 90 KT 105 MPH
12H 19/1800Z 35.7N 28.6W 80 KT 90 MPH
24H 20/0600Z 37.2N 25.0W 70 KT 80 MPH
36H 20/1800Z 38.6N 22.0W 60 KT 70 MPH
48H 21/0600Z 39.4N 19.4W 50 KT 60 MPH
72H 22/0600Z 39.7N 16.0W 30 KT 35 MPH…POST-TROP/REMNT LOW
96H 23/0600Z…DISSIPATED

Aviation Colour Enhancement – click for loop

Visible image. Image switches to infared view at night. Click on image to go to loop.

BULLETIN
POST-TROPICAL CYCLONE HELENE ADVISORY NUMBER 14
NWS NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL AL072012
1000 PM CDT SAT AUG 18 2012

…HELENE DEGENERATES INTO A BROAD AREA OF LOW PRESSURE…THIS IS
THE LAST ADVISORY…

SUMMARY OF 1000 PM CDT…0300 UTC…INFORMATION
———————————————–
LOCATION…22.8N 99.1W
ABOUT 85 MI…140 KM WNW OF TAMPICO MEXICO
MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WINDS…30 MPH…45 KM/H
PRESENT MOVEMENT…NW OR 315 DEGREES AT 3 MPH…6 KM/H
MINIMUM CENTRAL PRESSURE…1009 MB…29.80 INCHES

WATCHES AND WARNINGS
——————–
THERE ARE NO COASTAL WATCHES OR WARNINGS IN EFFECT.

DISCUSSION AND 48-HOUR OUTLOOK
——————————
AT 1000 PM CDT…0300 UTC…THE CENTER OF POST-TROPICAL CYCLONE
HELENE WAS LOCATED NEAR LATITUDE 22.8 NORTH…LONGITUDE 99.1 WEST.
THE LOW IS EXPECTED TO MOVE TOWARD THE NORTHWEST AT 3 MPH…6 KM/H
UNTIL DISSIPATION.

MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WINDS ARE NEAR 30 MPH…45 KM/H…WITH HIGHER
GUSTS IN A FEW SQUALLS. THE LOW IS FORECAST TO DISSIPATE ON SUNDAY.

ESTIMATED MINIMUM CENTRAL PRESSURE IS 1009 MB…29.80 INCHES.

HAZARDS AFFECTING LAND
———————-
RAINFALL…THE LOW IS EXPECTED TO PRODUCE ADDITIONAL RAINFALL
AMOUNTS OF 2 TO 4 INCHES ACROSS NORTHEASTERN PORTIONS OF MEXICO
FROM NORTHERN VERACRUZ INTO SOUTHERN TAMAULIPAS AND EASTERN SAN
LUIS STATES…WITH ISOLATED STORM TOTAL AMOUNTS OF 8 INCHES
POSSIBLE. THESE RAINS COULD PRODUCE LIFE-THREATENING FLASH FLOODS
AND MUD SLIDES OVER MOUNTAINOUS TERRAIN.

NEXT ADVISORY
————-
THIS IS THE LAST PUBLIC ADVISORY ISSUED BY THE NATIONAL HURRICANE
CENTER ON THIS SYSTEM.

POST-TROPICAL CYCLONE HELENE DISCUSSION NUMBER 14
NWS NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL AL072012
1000 PM CDT SAT AUG 18 2012

HELENE HAS CONTINUED TO MOVE FARTHER INLAND OVER NORTHEASTERN
MEXICO…AND IT HAS DEGENERATED INTO A BROAD AREA OF LOW PRESSURE.
THE LOW IS MOVING SLOWLY TOWARD THE NORTHWEST AND IS STILL
ACCOMPANIED BY DISORGANIZED CLOUDINESS AND THUNDERSTORMS. THE LOW
IS EXPECTED TO DISSIPATE ON SUNDAY.

THIS IS THE LAST ADVISORY ISSUED BY THE NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER ON
HELENE.

FORECAST POSITIONS AND MAX WINDS

INIT 19/0300Z 22.8N 99.1W 25 KT 30 MPH…POST-TROP/REMNT LOW
12H 19/1200Z 23.0N 99.5W 20 KT 25 MPH…POST-TROP/REMNT LOW
24H 20/0000Z…DISSIPATED

Aviation Colour Enhancement – click for loop

Visible image. Image switches to infared view at night. Click on image to go to loop.

BULLETIN
TROPICAL STORM ERNESTO ADVISORY NUMBER 32
NWS NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL AL052012
400 AM CDT THU AUG 09 2012

…ERNESTO EXPECTED TO MAKE LANDFALL IN MEXICO THIS MORNING…HEAVY
RAINS AND STRONG WINDS APPROACHING THE COAST OF THE SOUTHERN BAY OF
CAMPECHE…

SUMMARY OF 400 AM CDT…0900 UTC…INFORMATION
———————————————-
LOCATION…18.7N 93.6W
ABOUT 65 MI…100 KM NE OF COATZACOALCOS MEXICO
MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WINDS…70 MPH…110 KM/H
PRESENT MOVEMENT…W OR 270 DEGREES AT 16 MPH…26 KM/H
MINIMUM CENTRAL PRESSURE…993 MB…29.32 INCHES

WATCHES AND WARNINGS
——————–
CHANGES WITH THIS ADVISORY…

NONE.

SUMMARY OF WATCHES AND WARNINGS IN EFFECT…

A HURRICANE WARNING IS IN EFFECT FOR…
* VERACRUZ TO CHILITEPEC MEXICO

A HURRICANE WATCH IS IN EFFECT FOR…
* NORTH OF VERACRUZ TO BARRA DE NAUTLA

A TROPICAL STORM WARNING IS IN EFFECT FOR…
* NORTH OF VERACRUZ TO BARRA DE NAUTLA
* EAST OF CHILITEPEC TO CAMPECHE ALONG THE GULF COAST OF THE YUCATAN
PENINSULA OF MEXICO

FOR STORM INFORMATION SPECIFIC TO YOUR AREA…PLEASE MONITOR
PRODUCTS ISSUED BY YOUR NATIONAL METEOROLOGICAL SERVICE.

DISCUSSION AND 48-HOUR OUTLOOK
——————————
AT 400 AM CDT…0900 UTC…THE CENTER OF TROPICAL STORM ERNESTO WAS
LOCATED NEAR LATITUDE 18.7 NORTH…LONGITUDE 93.6 WEST. ERNESTO IS
MOVING TOWARD THE WEST NEAR 16 MPH…26 KM/H. A WEST TO WEST-
SOUTHWEST MOTION WITH SOME DECREASE IN FORWARD SPEED IS EXPECTED
DURING THE NEXT DAY OR TWO. ON THE FORECAST TRACK…THE CENTER OF
ERNESTO WILL MOVE ACROSS THE EXTREME SOUTHERN BAY OF CAMPECHE AND
MAKE LANDFALL IN THE HURRICANE WARNING AREA LATER THIS MORNING.

MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WINDS ARE NEAR 70 MPH…110 KM/H…WITH HIGHER
GUSTS. SOME STRENGTHENING IS EXPECTED AND ERNESTO IS FORECAST TO
BECOME A HURRICANE BEFORE MAKING LANDFALL. WEAKENING IS EXPECTED
AFTER THE CENTER MOVES OVER LAND.

TROPICAL STORM FORCE WINDS EXTEND OUTWARD UP TO 140 MILES…220 KM
FROM THE CENTER.

ESTIMATED MINIMUM CENTRAL PRESSURE IS 993 MB…29.32 INCHES.

HAZARDS AFFECTING LAND
———————-
WIND…HURRICANE CONDITIONS ARE EXPECTED TO SPREAD OVER THE
HURRICANE WARNING AREA THIS MORNING. TROPICAL STORM CONDITIONS WILL
CONTINUE TO SPREAD WESTWARD ACROSS THE TROPICAL STORM WARNING AREA
TODAY.

RAINFALL…ERNESTO IS EXPECTED TO PRODUCE TOTAL RAINFALL
ACCUMULATIONS OF 5 TO 10 INCHES WITH ISOLATED MAXIMUM AMOUNTS OF 15
INCHES OVER THE MEXICAN STATES OF VERACRUZ…TABASCO…PUEBLA…AND
OAXACA THROUGH FRIDAY. THESE RAINFALL AMOUNTS MAY PRODUCE
LIFE-THREATENING FLASH FLOODS AND MUDSLIDES OVER HIGHER TERRAIN
AREAS. ERNESTO IS EXPECTED TO PRODUCE ADDITIONAL RAIN ACCUMULATIONS
OF 1 TO 2 INCHES OVER NORTHERN GUATEMALA AND THE SOUTHWESTERN
YUCATAN PENINSULA THROUGH THIS MORNING.

STORM SURGE…A STORM SURGE OF 1 TO 3 FEET ABOVE NORMAL TIDE LEVELS
IS LIKELY IN AREAS OF ONSHORE WINDS IN THE WARNING AREA ALONG THE
GULF COAST OF MEXICO. NEAR THE COAST…THE SURGE WILL BE
ACCOMPANIED BY LARGE AND DANGEROUS WAVES.

TROPICAL STORM ERNESTO DISCUSSION NUMBER 32
NWS NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL AL052012
400 AM CDT THU AUG 09 2012

SATELLITE IMAGERY AND RADAR DATA FROM MEXICO HAS SHOWN A SIGNIFICANT
INCREASE IN DEEP CONVECTION AND IMPROVED ORGANIZATION OF THE
THUNDERSTORM ACTIVITY ASSOCIATED WITH ERNESTO OVERNIGHT. AN AIR
FORCE RESERVE HURRICANE HUNTER MISSION…AROUND 0600 UTC…MEASURED
A PEAK 850 MB FLIGHT-LEVEL WIND OF 86 KT. NORMALLY THIS WOULD
EQUATE TO HURRICANE INTENSITY. HOWEVER…IT APPEARS..BASED ON
MAXIMUM SFMR WINDS OF 55-59 KT AND A STANDARD REDUCED MEAN BOUNDARY
LAYER WIND OF 58 KT FROM A DROPWINDSONDE…THAT THESE WINDS WERE
NOT BEING EFFICIENTLY MIXED TO THE SURFACE. THEREFORE…THE INITIAL
INTENSITY IS SET AT 60 KT. ERNESTO APPEARS TO HAVE ABOUT 6 HOURS
OR SO OVER THE EXTREME SOUTHERN BAY OF CAMPECHE IN WHICH TO
INTENSIFY…AND THE OFFICIAL FORECAST CALLS FOR THE CYCLONE TO
REGAIN HURRICANE STRENGTH BEFORE LANDFALL. AFTER LANDFALL…
ERNESTO SHOULD RAPIDLY WEAKEN AND DISSIPATE OVER THE HIGH TERRAIN
OF MEXICO.

THE AIRCRAFT FIXES AND RADAR IMAGERY INDICATE THAT ERNESTO HAS
ACCELERATED WESTWARD DURING THE PAST SEVERAL HOURS. THE INITIAL
MOTION ESTIMATE IS 270 AT 14 KT. THE TRACK GUIDANCE IS IN GOOD
AGREEMENT IN SHOWING SOME DECELERATION IN FORWARD SPEED AND A
BEND TO THE WEST-SOUTHWEST AS ERNESTO NEARS THE COAST. THE OFFICIAL
FORECAST IS NEAR THE MIDDLE OF THE TIGHTLY CLUSTERED MODEL ENVELOPE
AND IS VERY SIMILAR TO THE PREVIOUS TRACK.

HEAVY RAINFALL AND THE THREAT OF FLASH FLOODING IS LIKELY OVER MUCH
OF SOUTHERN MEXICO FOR THE NEXT FEW DAYS.

FORECAST POSITIONS AND MAX WINDS

INIT 09/0900Z 18.7N 93.6W 60 KT 70 MPH
12H 09/1800Z 18.5N 95.2W 65 KT 75 MPH…INLAND
24H 10/0600Z 18.0N 96.8W 40 KT 45 MPH…INLAND
36H 10/1800Z 17.7N 98.0W 25 KT 30 MPH…INLAND
48H 11/0600Z…DISSIPATED

PASADENA, Calif. – About two hours after landing on Mars and beaming back its first image, NASA’s Curiosity rover transmitted a higher-resolution image of its new Martian home, Gale Crater. Mission Control at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., received the image, taken by one of the vehicle’s lower-fidelity, black-and-white Hazard Avoidance Cameras – or Hazcams.

08.06.12

Curiosity's early view of Mars

This is one of the first images taken by NASA’s Curiosity rover, which landed on Mars the evening of Aug. 5 PDT (morning of Aug. 6 EDT). Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech Full image and caption

The black-and-white, 512 by 512 pixel image, taken by Curiosity’s rear-left Hazcam, can be found at: http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/msl/multimedia/msl5.html.

“Curiosity’s landing site is beginning to come into focus,” said John Grotzinger, project manager of NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory mission, at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. “In the image, we are looking to the northwest. What you see on the horizon is the rim of Gale Crater. In the foreground, you can see a gravel field. The question is, where does this gravel come from? It is the first of what will be many scientific questions to come from our new home on Mars.”

While the image is twice as big in pixel size as the first images beamed down from the rover, they are only half the size of full-resolution Hazcam images. During future mission operations, these images will be used by the mission’s navigators and rover drivers to help plan the vehicle’s next drive. Other cameras aboard Curiosity, with color capability and much higher resolution, are expected to be sent back to Earth over the next several days.

Curiosity landed at 10:32 p.m. Aug. 5, PDT, (1:32 a.m. EDT, Aug. 6) near the foot of a mountain three miles (about five kilometers) tall inside Gale Crater, 96 miles (nearly 155 kilometers) 7in diameter. During a nearly two-year prime mission, the rover will investigate whether the region has ever offered conditions favorable for microbial life, including the chemical ingredients for life.

The mission is managed by JPL for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The rover was designed, developed and assembled at JPL, a division of Caltech.

For more information on the mission, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/mars and http://www.nasa.gov/mars and http://marsprogram.jpl.nasa.gov/msl.

Follow the mission on Facebook and Twitter at http://www.facebook.com/marscuriosity and http://www.twitter.com/marscuriosity

Related sites:
Where’s Curiosity?
What to expect?
Curiosity on Twitter
Curiosity on Facebook

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